CAROLINE ELIZABETH(1) was born
on 10 Jun 1713 in Herrenhausen. She died on 28 Dec 1757 in St. James' Palace.
Parents: (King) GEORGE II and
MATILDA(1) was born on 11 Jul 1751
in Leicester House, London, England. She died on 10 May 1775 in Celle. Parents:
(Prince) FREDERICK LOUIS (Prince of Wales) and
She was married to (King) CHRISTIAN VII
(King of Denmark) on 8 Nov 1766 in Christiansborg.
(1) was born on 17 May 1768 in Brunswick.
She died on 7 Aug 1821 in Brandenburg Hous, Hammersmith. She was buried in
Brunswick-W-lfenbuttel Parents: CHARLES II and
She was married to (King) GEORGE IV
on 8 Apr 1795 in Chapel Royal, St. James' Palace. Children were:
(1) was born on 1 Mar 1683 in Ansbach.
She died on 1 Dec 1737 in St. James' Palace. She was buried in Westminster
Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England. Parents: (Margrave)
JOHN FREDERICK and ELEONORE ERDMUTHE LOUISE.
She was married to (King) GEORGE II on 22 Aug 1705
in Herrenhausen. Children were: (Prince) FREDERICK LOUIS
(Prince of Wales), (Princess) ANNE,
AMELIA SOPHIA ELEANOR, CAROLINE ELIZABETH,
GEORGE WILLIAM, (Duke) WILLIAM AUGUSTUS (Duke of
Cumberla), MARY, LOUISA
(1) was born in 1762. She died in 1823.
Children were: William LANDGRAVE
, AUGUSTA WILHELMINA LOUISA.
CARPENTER(1) was born in 1657/58.
He died in 1726/27.
Children were: Keziah CARPENTER
CARPENTER(1) was born in 1696/97.
She died in 1763. Parents: Benjamin CARPENTER and
She was married to
Jeremiah PEARCE about 1717 in Swansey, R.I.. Children
were: Jonathan PEARCE, Keziah
PEARCE, Renew PEARCE,
Tabitha PEARCE, Jeremiah PEARCE,
George PEARCE, Thomas PEARCE (Revolutionary War Sol
He was married to
Elizabeth PEARCE about 1740 in North Kingston, Rhode Island.
CARR(1) 5 Children this marriage
She was married to Edward THURSTON about 1712.
CARRINGSTON(1) has reference number
CASE(1) was born about 1795. She died
She was married to John PEARCE about
1817. Children were: Daniel C. PEARCE,
Job PEARCE, Laura PEARCE.
CASE(1) was born about 1733 in North
Kingston, Rhode Island. She died about 1803. Parents:
Children were: John PEARCE,
Sarah PEARCE, Lucy PEARCE,
Elisha PEARCE, Anna PEARCE,
Joseph PEARCE, Giles PEARCE,
Susannah PEARCE, Desire PEARCE,
He was married to
Abigail C. PEARCE about 1830 in Newport, Rhode Island.
CASEY(1) was born in Easton, New York.
He was married to Betsey PEARCE about 1798.
HENRIETTA(1) was born on 25 Nov 1638
in Vila Vicosa, Portugal. She died on 31 Dec 1705 in Palace of Bempos, Lisbon.
She was buried in Belem. Parents: (King) JOHN IV (King
of Portugal) and (Queen) Luiza Maria De GUZMAN
She was married to (King) CHARLES II on 21 May
1662 in Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
CATHERINE II (The Great)(1) was born
on 21 Apr 1729.
Christened Sophie Auguste Friedrike, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst. In preparation
for her marriage to Grand Duke Peter Feodorovich (later Emperor Peter III), she
was rebaptized into the Orthodox faith and took the name Ekaterina Alekseevna,
which became "Catherine." Became Empress thru her marriage. Parents:
(Prince) CHRISTIAN AUGUST and
She was married to
Sergei SALTYKOV (Presumed Father Paul I). Children were:
(Emperor) PAUL I (Emperor of Russia).
She was married to
(Emperor) PETER III on 21 Aug 1745 in St. Petersburg, Russia.
LAURA(1) was born on 10 Jan 1675 in
St. James' Palace. She died on 3 Oct 1675 in St. James' Palace. Parents:
(Duke) JAMES II (Duke of York) and MARY BEATRICE
CATHERINE (Princess of Aragon)(1) was
born on 15 Dec 1485 in Alcala de Henare. Katherine of Aragón was born in
1485 in Alcala de Henares, Spain. Died in 1536. Catherine of Aragón (1485-1536),
queen consort of England (1509-33), who, as the first wife of King Henry VIII,
occupies a prominent place in history because the question of her marriage to
Henry was a factor in the Reformation in England. She was the daughter of Ferdinand
V and Isabella I, king and queen of Aragón and Castile. Catherine was born
in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Henry's father, King Henry VII, hoped to form
a binding alliance with Spain when he negotiated the marriage of Catherine and
his son Arthur, prince of Wales (1486-1502). She went to England in 1501 and
was married in November, but Arthur died in April 1502. A few months later Henry
VII arranged a second marriage for Catherine with his second son Henry, then
12 years old. A papal dispensation enabling Henry to marry the widow of his brother
was obtained in 1503. Henry succeeded to the throne in April 1509 and in June
he married Catherine.
Although the marriage was, on the whole, fairly successful, the pro-Spanish sympathies
of Catherine brought some difficulties during the periods of French alliance.
Catherine bore Henry six children, only one of whom, a daughter, later Queen
Mary I, survived.
In 1527 Henry tried to annul his marriage to Catherine so that he could marry
Anne Boleyn, who he hoped would give him a male heir to the throne. The pope
refused to make a decision on the proposed annulment, and in 1533 Henry was married
to Anne by the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1534 the pope finally declared that
the first marriage was valid, thus bringing about the alienation of Henry VIII
from the Roman Catholic church. Catherine did not quit the kingdom, but was thereafter
closely guarded. During this time she displayed heroic courage and steadfastly
refused to sign away her rights and those of Mary.
She died on 7 Jan 1536 in Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdon. She was buried in
Peterborough Castle. of Argon Parents: (King) FERDINAND
V (King of Aragon & Castile & Naples) and
(Queen) ISABELLA I (Queen of Castile).
She was married to
(King) HENRY VIII on 24 Jun 1509 in Grey Friars Church, Greenwich, England.
Children were: (Duke) HENRY (Duke of Cornwall),
(Queen) Mary I TUDOR.
She was married to
(Prince) ARTHUR (Prince of Wales) on 14 Nov 1501 in St. Pauls' Cathedral.
(1) was born on 14 Aug 1479 in Eltham Palace,
Kent, England. She died on 15 Nov 1527 in Tiverton, Devon. Parents:
(King) EDWARD IV and Elizabeth WOODVILLE.
She was married to (Earl) William COURTENAY (Earl of
Devon) before Oct 1495.
(1) was born on 29 Jun 1639 in Whitehall
Palace. She died on 29 Jun 1639 in Whitehall Palace. Parents:
(King) Charles I STUART and (Queen) HENRIETTA MARIA
(1) of Lancaster Parents:
(Duke) JOHN(GAUNT) (Duke of Lancaster K.G.) and
(Queen) Constanza PEREZ.
(1) was born on 27 Oct 1401 in Hotel de
St. Pol, Paris. Catherine of Valois (1401-37), queen consort of England (1420-22),
wife of Henry V, king of England, and daughter of Charles VI, king of France,
born in Paris. When she was 12 years old, Henry V renewed the negotiations begun
by his father for a marriage with Catherine. Henry demanded a large dowry and
the French regions of Aquitaine and Normandy. The proposition was rejected, and
in 1415 Henry invaded France and forced compliance with his terms. When he married
Catherine in Troyes, France, in June 1420, he received the provinces claimed,
the regency of France during the life of Charles, and the right to succeed to
the French throne after Charles's death. In February 1421 Catherine was crowned
at Westminster Abbey, and in December she bore a son, later King Henry VI. After
the death of Henry V in 1422, Catherine's union with the Welsh squire Owen Tudor
produced four children. One of her sons, Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond (1430?-56),
married Margaret Beaufort; their son became Henry VII, the first Tudor king of
England. She died on 3 Jan 1437 in Bermondsey Abbey, England. She was buried
in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England. of France Parents:
(King) CHARLES VI (King of France) and ISABELLE (Bavaria)
She was married to (King) HENRY V on 2 Jun 1420
in Troyes. Children were: (King) HENRY VI.
were: (Earl) Jasper TUDOR,
(Earl) Edmund TUDOR.
(1) was born on 25 Nov 1253 in Westminster,
London, Middlesex, England. She died between 3 May 1256 and 1258 in Westminster,
London, Middlesex, England. She was buried in Westminster, London, Middlesex,
England. She was endowed CHILD. She was baptised into the LDS church CHILD.
She has reference number 8XJ8-9H. Parents: (King) HENRY
III and (Queen) ELEONORE (Countess of Provence)
Children were: (Lady) Arabella
were: Elizabeth Angela Marguerite BOWES-LYON (Queen Mother)
CEAWLIN (CEALWIN) (King of Wessex)(1)
was born about 547 in Wessex, England. He died in 591. King of Wessex (560)
Parents: (King) CYNRIC (King of Wessex).
were: CEDDE, (Prince) CUTHWINE
(CUTHA) (Prince of Wessex).
CECILIA(1) died on 30 Jul 1126 in Caen,
France. Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen (founded by her mother) Parents:
(King) WILLIAM I (The Conqueror Duke of Normandy) and
Matilda De FLANDERS.
(King) CEAWLIN (CEALWIN) (King of Wessex).
(1) died in 661. Parents:
(COENRED)(1) was born about 644 in
Wessex, England. Parents: CUTHWULF (CEOLWALD).
Children were: (King) INE,
Fernando De La CERDA (Prince of Castile)(1)
has reference number 8XJG-9B.
He was married to
(Princess) BLANCHE on 13 Nov 1269 in Burgos, Burgos, Spain.
CERDIC (King of Wessex)(1) was born
about 467 in Saxony. He died in 534 in Wessex, England. King of Wessex 519
(King) CYNRIC (King of Wessex), CRIODA (CREODA)
Guy I CHAMPAGNE (Count of Champagne)(1)
has reference number HRGR-G4.
He was married to
Marguerite De VALOIS after 6 Oct 1310.
De CHAMPAGNE(1) has reference number
She was married to (Prince) PIERRE in
CHAMPE(1) has reference number 9PJX-X3.
She was married to
Giles PEARCE about 1799 in Newport, Rhode Island.
Licenticia CHANDLER, Samantha CHANDLER.
She was married to Payton S. PEARCE (Civil
War CSA) on 2 Feb 1868.(27) Children
were: L.L. "Lessie" PEARCE,
L.M. "Ollie" PEARCE, William Howran PEARCE
, L.O. "Lilly" PEARCE,
Henry W. PEARCE, L. May "Lula" PEARCE
, Myra E. PEARCE, Walter G.
PEARCE, Bryant E. PEARCE.
Al CHAPEL(1) has reference number HRVV-2P.
CHAPMAN(1) has reference number 9PJZ-2Q.
CHARIBERT (Count of Laon)(1). Parents:
(Countess of Laon) BERTRADA II (Queen of The Franks).
CHARLEMAGNE (King of the Franks)(4)
(1) was born on 2 Apr 742 in Ingelheim,
(28) Charles I; Charlemagne 742-814, emperor of the west (800-814),
Carolinian king of the Franks (768-814). The son of Pepin the Short, he consolidated
his rule in his own kingdom, invaded Italy in support of the pope, and in 774
was crowned king of the Lombards. He took NE Spain from the Moors (778) and annexed
Bavaria (788). After a long struggle (772-804) he subjugated and Christianized
the Saxons. In (800) he restored Leo III to the papacy and was crowned emperor
by him on Christmas Day, thus laying the basis for the Holy Roman Empire and
finalizing the split between the Byzantine and Roman empires.
Charlemagne ruled through a highly efficient administrative system. He codified
the law in his various dominions, and his court at Aachen was the center for
an intellectual and artistic renaissance. The end of his reign was troubled by
raids by the Norseman. His son Louis I, was co-emperor in (813) and succeeded
on his father's death.
Charles The Great or Charlemagne died at Aix-la-Chapelle or Aachen buried at
Aix-la-Chapelle or Aachen, Reign 768-814 Joint Ruler
Charlemagne, in Latin Carolus Magnus (Charles the Great) (742-814), king of the
Franks (768-814) and Emperor of the Romans (800-14), who led his Frankish armies
to victory over numerous other peoples and established his rule in most of western
and central Europe. He was the best-known and most influential king in Europe
in the Middle Ages.
Charlemagne was born probably in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), on April 2, 742, the
son of the Frankish king Pepin the Short and the grandson of Charles Martel.
In 751 Pepin dethroned the last Merovingian king and assumed the royal title
himself. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II in 754. Besides anointing Pepin, Pope
Stephen anointed both Charlemagne and his younger brother Carloman.
Within the year Pepin invaded Italy to protect the pope against the Lombards,
and in 756 he again had to rush to the pope's aid. From 760 on, Pepin's main
military efforts went into the conquest of Aquitaine, the lands south of the
Loire River. Charlemagne accompanied his father on most of these expeditions.
When Pepin died in 768, the rule of his realms was to be shared between his two
sons. Charlemagne sought an alliance with the Lombards by marrying (770) the
daughter of their king, Desiderius (reigned 757-774). In 771 Carloman died suddenly.
Charlemagne then seized his territories, but Carloman's heirs took refuge at
the court of Desiderius. By that time Charlemagne had repudiated his wife, and
Desiderius was no longer friendly. In 772, when Pope Adrian I appealed to Charlemagne
for help against Desiderius, the Frankish king invaded Italy, deposed his erstwhile
father-in-law (774), and himself assumed the royal title. He then journeyed to
Rome and reaffirmed his father's promise to protect papal lands. As early as
772 Charlemagne had fought onslaughts of the heathen Saxons on his lands. Buoyed
by his Italian success, he now (775) embarked on a campaign to conquer and Christianize
them. That campaign had some initial success but was to drag on for 30 years,
in which time he conducted many other campaigns as well. He fought in Spain in
778; on the return trip his rear guard, led by Roland, was ambushed, a story
immortalized in The Song of Roland. In 788 he subjected the Bavarians to his
rule, and between 791 and 796 Charlemagne's armies conquered the empire of the
Avars (corresponding roughly to modern Hungary and Austria).
Having thus established Frankish rule over so many other peoples, Charlemagne
had in fact built an empire and become an emperor. It remained only for him to
add the title. On Christmas Day, in 800, Charlemagne knelt to pray in Saint Peter's
Basilica in Rome. Pope Leo III then placed a crown upon his head, and the people
assembled in the church acclaimed him the great, pacific emperor of the Romans.
Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, reported that the king was surprised by this
coronation and that had he known it was going to happen, he would not have gone
into the church that day. This report has led to much speculation by historians.
Charlemagne probably desired and expected to get the imperial title and he subsequently
used it. In 813 he designated his sole surviving son, Louis, as his successor,
and personally crowned him.
Charlemagne established a more permanent royal capital than had any of his predecessors.
His favorite residence from 794 on was at Aix-la-Chapelle. He had a church and
a palace constructed there, based in part on architectural borrowings from Ravenna
and Rome. At his court he gathered scholars from all over Europe, the most famous
being the English cleric Alcuin of York, whom he placed in charge of the palace
Administration of the empire was entrusted to some 250 royal administrators called
counts. Charlemagne issued hundreds of decrees, called capitularies, dealing
with a broad range of topics from judicial and military matters to monasteries,
education, and the management of royal estates.
The empire did not expand after 800; indeed, already in the 790s the seacoasts
and river valleys experienced the first, dreaded visits of the Vikings. Charlemagne
ordered a special watch against them in every harbor, but with little effect.
He died before their full, destructive force was unleashed on the empire.
Charlemagne is important not only for the number of his victories and the size
of his empire, but for the special blend of tradition and innovation that he
represented. On the one hand, he was a traditional Germanic warrior, who spent
most of his adult life fighting. In the Saxon campaigns he imposed baptism by
the sword, and he retaliated against rebels with merciless slaughter. On the
other hand, he placed his immense power and prestige at the service of Christian
doctrine, the monastic life, the teaching of Latin, the copying of books, and
the rule of law. His life, held up as a model to most later kings, thus embodied
the fusion of Germanic, Roman, and Christian cultures that became the basis of
(French for Carolus Magnus, or Carlus Magnus ("Charles the Great");
German Karl der Grosse).
The name given by later generations to Charles, King of the Franks, first sovereign
of the Christian Empire of the West; born 2 April, 742; died at Aachen, 28 January,
814. Note, however, that the place of his birth (whether Aachen or Liège)
has never been fully ascertained, while the traditional date has been set one
or more years later by recent writers; if Alcuin is to be interpreted literally
the year should be 745. At the time of Charles' birth, his father, Pepin the
Short, Mayor of the Palace, of the line of Arnulf, was, theoretically, only the
first subject of Childeric III, the last Merovinigian King of the Franks; but
this modest title implied that real power, military, civil, and even ecclesiastical,
of which Childeric's crown was only the symbol. It is not certain that Bertrada
(or Bertha), the mother of Charlemagne, a daughter of Charibert, Count of Laon,
was legally married to Pepin until some years later than either 742 or 745.
Charlemagne's career led to his acknowledgment by the Holy See as its chief protector
and coadjutor in temporals, by Constantinople as at least Basileus of the West.
This reign, which involved to a greater degree than that of any other historical
personage the organic development, and still more, the consolidation of Christian
Europe, will be sketched in this article in the successive periods into which
it naturally divides. The period of Charlemagne was also an epoch of reform for
the Church in Gaul, and of foundation for the Church in Germany, marked, moreover,
by an efflorescence of learning which fructified in the great Christian schools
of the twelfth and later centuries.
To the Fall of Pavia (742-774)
In 752, when Charles was a child of not more than ten years, Pepin the Short
had appealed to Pope Zachary to recognize his actual rule with the kingly title
and dignity. The practical effect of this appeal to the Holy See was the journey
of Stephen III across the Alps two years later, for the purpose of anointing
with the oil of kingship not only Pepin, but also his son Charles and a younger
son, Carloman. The pope then laid upon the Christian Franks a precept, under
the gravest spiritual penalties, never "to choose their kings from any other
family". Primogeniture did not hold in the Frankish law of succession; the
monarchy was elective, though eligibility was limited to the male members of
the one privileged family. Thus, then, at St. Denis on the Seine, in the Kingdom
of Neustria, on the 28th of July, 754, the house of Arnulf was, by a solemn act
of the supreme pontiff established upon the throne until then nominally occupied
by the house of Merowig (Merovingians).
Charles, anointed to the kingly office while yet a mere child, learned the rudiments
of war while still many years short of manhood, accompanying his father in several
campaigns. This early experience is worth noting chiefly because it developed
in the boy those military virtues which, joined with his extraordinary physical
strength and intense nationalism, made him a popular hero of the Franks long
before he became their rightful ruler. At length, in September, 768, Pepin the
Short, foreseeing his end, made a partition of his dominions between his two
sons. Not many days later the old king passed away.
To better comprehend the effect of the act of partition under which Charles and
Carloman inherited their father's dominions, as well as the whole subsequent
history of Charles' reign, it is to be observed that those dominions comprised:
first, Frankland (Frankreich) proper;
secondly, as many as seven more or less self-governing dependencies, peopled
by races of various origins and obeying various codes of law.
Of these two divisions, the former extended, roughly speaking, from the boundaries
of Thuringia, on the east, to what is now the Belgian and Norman coastline, on
the west; it bordered to the north on Saxony, and included both banks of the
Rhine from Cologne (the ancient Colonia Agrippina) to the North Sea; its southern
neighbours were the Bavarians, the Alemanni, and the Burgundians. The dependent
states were: the fundamentally Gaulish Neustria (including within its borders
Paris), which was, nevertheless, well leavened with a dominant Frankish element;
to the southwest of Neustria, Brittany, formerly Armorica, with a British and
Gallo-Roman population; to the south of Neustria the Duchy of Aquitaine, lying,
for the most part, between the Loire and the Garonne, with a decidedly Gallo-Roman
population; and east of Aquitaine, along the valley of the Rhone, the Burgundians,
a people of much the same mixed origin as those of Aquitaine, though with a large
infusion of Teutonic blood. These States, with perhaps the exception of Brittany,
recognized the Theodosian Code as their law. The German dependencies of the Frankish
kingdom were Thuringia, in the valley of the Main, Bavaria, and Alemannia (corresponding
to what was later known as Swabia). These last, at the time of Pepin's death,
had but recently been won to Christianity, mainly through the preaching of St.
Boniface. The share which fell to Charles consisted of all Austrasia (the original
Frankland), most of Neustria, and all of Aquitaine except the southeast corner.
In this way the possessions of the elder brother surrounded the younger on two
sides, but on the other hand the distribution of mm under their respective rules
was such as to preclude any risk of discord arising out of the national sentiments
of their various subjects.
In spite of this provident arrangement, Carloman contrived to quarrel with his
brother. Hunald, formerly Duke of Aquitaine, vanquished by Pepin the Short, broke
from the cloister, where he had lived as a monk for twenty years, and stirred
up a revolt in the western part of the duchy. By Frankish custom Carloman should
have aided Charles; the younger brother himself held part of Aquitaine; but he
pretended that, as his dominion were unaffected by this revolt, it was no business
of his. Hunald, however, was vanquished by Charles single-handed; he was betrayed
by a nephew with whom he had sought refuge, was sent to Rome to answer for the
violation of his monastic vows, and at last, after once more breaking cloister,
was stoned to death by the Lombards of Pavia. For Charles the true importance
of this Aquitanian episode was in its manifestation his brother's unkindly feeling
in his regard, and against this danger he lost no time in taking precautions,
chiefly by winning over to himself the friends whom he judged likely to be most
valuable; first and foremost of these was his mother, Bertha, who had striven
both earnestly and prudently to make peace between her sons, but who, when it
became necessary to take sides with one or the other could not hesitate in her
devotion to the elder. Charles was an affectionate son; it also appears that,
in general, he was helped to power by his extraordinary gift of personal attractiveness.
Carloman died soon after this (4 December, 771), and a certain letter from "the
Monk Cathwulph", quoted by Bouquet (Recueil. hist., V, 634), in enumerating
the special blessings for which the king was in duty bound to be grateful, says,
Third . . . God has preserved you from the wiles of your brother . . . . Fifth,
and not the least, that God has removed your brother from this earthly kingdom.
Carloman may not have been quite so malignant as the enthusiastic partisans of
Charles made him out, but the division of Pepin's dominions was in itself an
impediment to the growth of a strong Frankish realm such as Charles needed for
the unification of the Christian Continent. Although Carloman had left two sons
by his wife, Gerberga, the Frankish law of inheritance gave no preference to
sons as against brother; left to their own choice, the Frankish lieges, whether
from love of Charles or for the fear which his name already inspired, gladly
accepted him for their king. Gerberga and her children fled to the Lombard court
of Pavia. In the mean while complications had arisen in Charles' foreign policy
which made his newly established supremacy at home doubly opportune.
From his father Charles had inherited the title "Patricius Romanus"
which carried with it a special obligation to protect the temporal rights of
the Holy See. The nearest and most menacing neighbour of St. Peter's Patrimony
was Desidarius (Didier), King of the Lombards, and it was with this potentate
that the dowager Bertha had arranged a matrimonial alliance for her elder son.
The pope had solid temporal reasons for objecting to this arrangement. Moreover,
Charles was already, in foro conscientiae, if not in Frankish law, wedded to
Himiltrude. In defiance of the pope's protest (PL 98:250), Charles married Desiderata,
daughter of Desiderius (770), three years later he repudiated her and married
Hildegarde, the beautiful Swabian. Naturally, Desiderius was furious at this
insult, and the dominions of the Holy See bore the first brunt of his wrath.
But Charles had to defend his own borders against the heathen as well as to protect
Rome against the Lombard. To the north of Austrasia lay Frisia, which seems to
have been in some equivocal way a dependency, and to the east of Frisia, from
the left bank of the Ems (about the present Holland-Westphalia frontier), across
the valley of the Weser and Aller, and still eastward to the left bank of the
Elbe, extended the country of the Saxons, who in no fashion whatever acknowledged
any allegiance to the Frankish kings. In 772 these Saxons were a horde of aggressive
pagans offering to Christian missionaries no hope but that of martyrdom; bound
together, normally, by no political organization, and constantly engaged in predatory
incursions into the lands of the Franks. Their language seems to have been very
like that spoken by the Egberts and Ethelreds of Britain, but the work of their
Christian cousin, St. Boniface, had not affected them as yet; they worshipped
the gods of Walhalla, united in solemn sacrifice -- sometimes human -- to Irminsul
(Igdrasail), the sacred tree which stood at Eresburg, and were still slaying
Christian missionaries when their kinsmen in Britain were holding church synods
and building cathedrals. Charles could brook neither their predatory habits nor
their heathenish intolerance; it was impossible, moreover, to make permanent
peace with them while they followed the old Teutonic life of free village communities.
He made his first expedition into their country in July, 772, took Eresburg by
storm, and burned Irminsul. It was in January of this same year that Pope Stephen
III died, and Adrian I, an opponent of Desiderius, was elected. The new pope
was almost immediately assailed by the Lombard king, who seized three minor cities
of the Patrimony of St. Peter, threatened Ravenna itself, and set about organizing
a plot within the Curia. Paul Afiarta, the papal chamberlain, detected acting
as the Lombard's secret agent, was seized and put to death. The Lombard army
advanced against Rome, but quailed before the spiritual weapons of the Church,
while Adrian sent a legate into Gaul to claim the aid of of the Patrician.
Thus it was that Charles, resting at Thionville after his Saxon campaign, was
urgently reminded of the rough work that awaited his hand south of the Alps.
Desiderius' embassy reached him soon after Adrian's. He did not take it for granted
that the right was all upon Adrian's side; besides, he may have seen here an
opportunity make some amends for his repudiation of the Lombard princess. Before
taking up arms for the Holy See, therefore, he sent commissioners into Italy
to make enquiries and when Desiderius pretended that the seizure of the papal
cities was in effect only the legal foreclosure of a mortgage, Charles promptly
offered to redeem them by a money payment. But Desiderius refused the money,
and as Charles' commissioners reported in favour of Adrian, the only course left
In the spring of 773 Charles summoned the whole military strength of the Franks
for a great invasion of Lombardy. He was slow to strike, but he meant to strike
hard. Data for any approximate estimate of his numerical strength are lacking,
but it is certain that the army, in order to make the descent more swiftly, crossed
the Alps by two passes: Mont Cenis and the Great St. Bernard. Einhard, who accompanied
the king over Mont Cenis (the St. Bernard column was led by Duke Bernhard), speaks
feelingly of the marvels and perils of the passage. The invaders found Desiderius
waiting for them, entrenched at Susa; they turned his flank and put the Lombard
army to utter rout. Leaving all the cities of the plains to their fate, Desiderius
rallied part of his forces in Pavia, his walled capital, while his son Adalghis,
with the rest, occupied Verona. Charles, having been joined by Duke Bernhard,
took the forsaken cities on his way and then completely invested Pavia (September,
773), whence Otger, the faithful attendant of Gerberga, could look with trembling
upon the array of his countrymen. Soon after Christmas Charles withdrew from
the siege a portion of the army which he employed in the capture of Verona. Here
he found Gerberga and her children; as to what became of them, history is silent;
they probably entered the cloister.
What history does record with vivid eloquence is the first visit of Charles to
the Eternal City. There everything was done to give his entry as much as possible
the air of a triumph in ancient Rome. The judges met him thirty miles from the
city; the militia laid at the feet of their great patrician the banner of Rome
and hailed him as their imperator. Charles himself forgot pagan Rome and prostrated
himself to kiss the threshold of the Apostles, and then spent seven days in conference
with the successor of Peter. It was then that he undoubtedly formed many great
designs for the glory of God and the exaltation of Holy Church, which, in spite
of human weaknesses and, still more, ignorance, he afterwards did his best to
realize. His coronation as the successor of Constantine did not take place until
twenty-six years later, but his consecration as first champion of the Catholic
Church took place at Easter, 774. Soon after this (June, 774) Pavia fell, Desiderius
was banished, Adalghis became a fugitive at the Byzantine court, and Charles,
assuming the crown of Lombardy, renewed to Adrian the donation of of territory
made by Pepin the Short after his defeat of Aistulph. (This donation is now generally
admitted, as well as the original gift of Pepin at Kiersy in 752. The so-called
"Privilegium Hadriani pro Carolo" granting him full right to nominate
the pope and to invest all bishops is a forgery.)
To the Baptism of Wittekind (774-785)
The next twenty years of Charles' life may be considered as one long warfare.
They are filled with an astounding series of rapid marches from end to end of
a continent intersected by mountains, morasses, and forests, and scantily provided
with roads. It would seem that the key to his long series of victories, won almost
as much by moral ascendancy as by physical or mental superiority, is to be found
in the inspiration communicated to his Frankish champion by Pope Adrian I. Weiss
(Weltgesch., 11, 549) enumerates fifty-three distinct campaigns of Charlemagne;
of these it is possible to point to only twelve or fourteen which were not undertaken
principally or entirely in execution of his mission as the soldier and protector
of the Church. In his eighteen campaigns against the Saxons Charles was more
or less actuated by the desire to extinguish what he and his people regarded
as a form of devil-worship, no less odious to them than the fetishism of Central
Africa is to us.
While he was still in Italy the Saxons, irritated but not subdued by the fate
of Eresburg and of Irminsul had risen in arms, harried the country of the Hessian
Franks, and burned many churches; that of St. Boniface at Fritzlar, being of
stone, had defeated their efforts. Returning to the north, Charles sent a preliminary
column of cavalry into the enemy's country while he held a council of the realm
at Kiersy (Quercy) in September, 774, at which it was decided that the Saxons
(Westfali, Ostfali, and Angrarii) must be presented with the alternative of baptism
or death. The northeastern campaigns of the next seven years had for their object
a conquest so decisive as to make the execution of this policy feasible. The
year 775 saw the first of a series of Frankish military colonies, on the ancient
Roman plan established at Sigeburg among the Westfali. Charles next subdued,
temporarily at least, the Ostali, whose chieftain, Hessi, having accepted baptism,
ended his life in the monastery of Fulda (see BONIFACE, SAINT; FULDA). Then,
a Frankish camp at Lübbecke on the Weser having been surprised by the Saxons,
and its garrison slaughtered, Charles turned again westward, once more routed
the Westfali, and received their oaths of submission.
At this stage (776) the affairs of Lombardy interrupted the Saxon crusade. Areghis
of Beneventum, son-in-law of the vanquished Desiderius, had formed a plan with
his brother-in-law Adalghis (Adelchis), then an exile at Constantinople, by which
the latter was to make a descent upon Italy, backed by the Eastern emperor; Adrian
was at the same time involved in a quarrel with the three Lombard dukes, Reginald
of Clusium, Rotgaud of Friuli, and Hildebrand of Spoleto. The archbishop of Ravenna,
who called himself "primate" and "exarch of Italy", was also
attempting to found an independent principality at the expense of the papal state
but was finally subdued in 776, and his successor compelled to be content with
the title of "Vicar" or representative of the pope. The junction of
the aforesaid powers, all inimical to the pope and the Franks, while Charles
was occupied in Westphalia, was only prevented by the death of Constantine Copronymus
in September, 775 (see BYZANTINE EMPIRE). After winning over Hildebrand and Reginald
by diplomacy, Charles descended into Lombardy by the Brenner Pass (spring of
776), defeated Rotgaud, and leaving garrisons and governors, or counts (comites),
as they were termed, in the reconquered cities of the Duchy of Friuli, hastened
back to Saxony. There the Frankish garrison had been forced to evacuate Eresburg,
while the siege of Sigeburg was so unexpectedly broken up as to give occasion
later to a legend of angelic intervention in favour of the Christians. As usual,
the almost incredible suddenness of the king's reappearance and the moral effect
of his presence quieted the ragings of the heathen. Charles then divided the
Saxon territory into Missionary districts. At the great spring hosting (champ
de Mai) of Paderborn, in 777, many Saxon converts were baptized; Wittekind (Widukind),
however, already the leader and afterwards the popular hero of the Saxons, had
fled to his brother-in-law, Sigfrid the Dane.
The episode of the invasion of Spain comes next in chronological order. The condition
of the venerable Iberian Church, still suffering under Moslem domination, appealed
strongly to the king's sympathy. In 777 there came to Paderborn three Moorish
emirs, enemies of the Ommeyad Abderrahman, the Moorish King of Cordova. These
emirs did homage to Charles and proposed to him an invasion of Northern Spain;
one of the, Ibn-el-Arabi, promised to bring to the invaders' assistance a force
of Berber auxiliaries from Africa; the other two promised to exert their powerful
influence at Barcelona and elsewhere north of the Ebro. Accordingly, in the spring
of 778, Charles, with a host of crusaders, speaking many tongues, and which numbered
among its constituents even a quota of Lombards, moved towards the Pyrenees.
His trusted lieutenant, Duke Bernhard. with one division, entered Spain by the
coast. Charles himself marched through the mountain passes straight to Pampelona.
But Ibn-el-Arabi, who had prematurely brought on his army of Berbers, was assassinated
by the emissary of Abderrahman, and though Pampelona was razed, and Barcelona
and other cities fell, Saragossa held out. Apart from the moral effect of this
campaign upon the Moslem rulers of Spain, its result was insignificant, though
the famous ambuscade in which perished Roland, the great Paladin, at the Pass
of Roncesvalles, furnished to the medieval world the material for its most glorious
and influential epic, the "Chanson de Roland".
Much more important to posterity were the next succeeding events which continued
and decided the long struggle in Saxony. During the Spanish crusade Wittekind
had returned from his exile, bringing with him Danish allies, and was now ravaging
Hesse; the Rhine valley from Deutz to Andenach was a prey to the Saxon "devil-worshipers";
the Christian missionaries were scattered or in hiding. Charles gathered his
hosts at Düren, in June, 779, and stormed Wittekind's entrenched camp at
Bocholt, after which campaign he seems to have considered Saxony a fairly subdued
country. At any rate, the "Saxon Capitulary" (see CAPITULARIES) of
781 obliged all Saxons not only to accept baptism (and this on the pain of death)
but also to pay tithes, as the Franks did for the support of the Church; moreover
it confiscated a large amount of property for the benefit of the missions. This
was Wittekind's last opportunity to restore the national independence and paganism;
his people, exasperated against the Franks and their God, eagerly rushed to arms.
At Suntal on the Weser, Charles being absent, they defeated a Frankish army killing
two royal legates and five Counts. But Wittekind committed the error of enlisting
as allies the non-Teutonic Sorbs from beyond the Saale; race-antagonism soon
weakened his forces, and the Saxon hosts melted away. Of the so-called "Massacre
of Verdun" (783) it is fair to say that the 4500 Saxons who perished were
not prisoners of war; legally, they were ringleaders in a rebellion, selected
as such from a number of their fellow rebels. Wittekind himself escaped beyond
the Elbe. It was not until after another defeat of the Saxons at Detmold, and
again at Osnabrück, on the "Hill of Slaughter", that Wittekind
acknowledged the God of Charles the stronger than Odin. In 785 Wittekind received
baptism at Attigny, and Charles stood godfather.
Last Steps to the Imperial Throne (785-800)
The summer of 783 began a new period in the life of Charles, in which signs begin
to appear of his less amiable traits. It
He died about Feb 814 in Aix-la-Chapelle. He was christened in St Denis, Paris,
Seine, France. He was buried in Aix-la-Chapelle. He has reference number 9GCC-89.
Parents: (Mayor)(The Short) PEPIN III (Mayor of The
Palace In Austrasia).
Children were: (King) CHARLES
(The Younger), (King) PEPIN (King of Italy),
BERTHA, (Emperor) LOUIS I (The Pious),
He was married to FASTRADA in 783.
Children were: (Abbess) THEODRADA.
were: (Abbess) RUOTHILD.
(Bishop) DROGO, (Abbott) HUGH.
(Abbot) RICHBOD, (Cleric)
He was married to DESIDERATA
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