Alice HAYNES(1) has reference
HAYWARD(1) has reference number RXG6-XS.
HAZARD(1) was born about 1780. She
died about 1836.
She was married to Benjamin PEARCE
in Newport, Rhode Island.
She was married to
Samuel PEARCE about 1830.
P. HEAD(1) was born about 1803. She
died about 1879.
She was married to Jonathan D. PEARCE
about 1823 in Little Compton, Newport County, Rhode Island.
HEDWIG (Unknown)(1) died after 965.
Parents: (Duke) HEINRICH I (Duke of Saxony).
She was married to (Duke) HUGUES I (Duke of France)
in 938. Children were: (King) Hugues CAPET (King of
Van HEEMSTEDE(1) has reference number
JUDITH (Bavaria), (Count) CONRAD (Count of Argengau)
, (Count) RUDOLF (Count of Troyes),
HEINRICH I (Duke of Saxony)(1).
Children were: (Mr.) HEDWIG (Unknown).
AUGUSTA VICTORIA(1) was born on 25
May 1846 in Buckingham, Palace. She died on 9 Jul 1923 in Schomberg House, Pall
Mall, London. Parents: (King) ALBERT and
(Queen) VICTORIA ALEXANDRINA.
WILHELMINA HENRIETTA(1) of Nassau
HELLETRUDE(1) was born about 832 in
Alsace, Lorraine, France. She has reference number 9FCW-4Q. Parents:
(Emperor) LOTHAIRE (King of Italy) and (Empress)
J. HENDRY (Seminole Indian War)(1)
served in the military on 3 Jan 1856 in Seminole Indain War.
(42) Captain William B. Hooker Company, Seminole Indian War 1856
Hermann I HENNEBERG (Count of Henneberg)(1)
has reference number 8D5Q-RL.
He was married to
(Countess) MARGARETHA (Countess of Holland) before 12 Jul 1249. He was sealed
to spouse SUBMITTED.
HENRI I(1) was born in 1008. He died
on 4 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie. He was buried in St. Denis, France. Parents:
(King) ROBERT II (The Pious) and
He was married to
(Grand Duchess) Anna Agnesa YOROSLAVNA (Grand Duchess of Kiev) in 1051 in
Reims. Children were: (King) PHILIPPE I.
HENRI II (Count of Bar-Leduc-Mousson)(1)
was born about 1170 in Bar Le Duc, Meuse, France. He has reference number
Children were: Sibylle De BAR LE DUC,
Marguerite De BAR MOUSSON.
HENRI III (Count of Luxembourg-Mass)(1)
was born about 1220 in Luxembourg. He has reference number F77J-6V. Parents:
(Duke of Limbourg & Montjoie) WALERAM IV (Count
of Luxembourg) and (Countess) ERMENSINDE (Countess
of Namur & Luxembourg).
He was married to
Marguerite De BAR MOUSSON on 4 Jun 1240. Children were:
(Countess) PHILIPPINA (PHILIPPA) (Countess of Luxembourg-Maas).
HENRI (Prince of The Franks)(1) was
born before 953 in Laon, Aisne, France. He died about 953. He was endowed INFANT.
He was baptised into the LDS church INFANT. He has reference number 9GDD-9P.
Parents: (Duke) Gilbert LORRAINE and
(Princess) GERBERGE (Princess of Germany).
ANNE(1) was born on 16 Jun 1644 in
Bedford House, Exeter, England. She died on 30 Jun 1670 in St. Cloud, France.
Parents: (King) Charles I STUART and
(Queen) HENRIETTA MARIA.
HENRIETTA MARIA(1) was born on 26 Nov
1609 in Hotel du Louvre, Paris. She died on 31 Aug 1669 in Colombes, Paris.
She was buried in Royal Basilica o, Paris. Queen of France Parents:
(King) HENRY IV (King of France) and MARIE.
She was married to (King) Charles I STUART on 13
Jun 1625 in Canterbury, Kent, England. Children were:
(Duke) CHARLES JAMES (Duke of Cornwall), (King) CHARLES
II, (Princess Royal) Mary STUART,
(Duke) JAMES II (Duke of York), ELIZABETH,
ANNE, CATHERINE, (Duke)
HENRY (Duke of Gloucester), HENRIETTA ANNE.
HENRY BENEDICT THOMAS (Styled Duke of York)(1)
was born on 6 Mar 1725 in Rome. He died on 13 Jul 1807 in Frascati.
Cardinal styled Duke of York The Jacobite "Henry IX" Parents:
(Prince) JAMES FRANCIS EDWARD III (Prince of Wales) and
Maria Casimire Clementina SOBIESKI.
HENRY FREDERICK (Prince of Wales)(1)
was born on 19 Feb 1594 in Stirling Castle. He died on 6 Nov 1612 in St. James'
Palace. Parents: (King) James I STUART and
HENRY FREDERICK (Duke of Cumberla)(1)
was born on 27 Oct 1745 in Leicester House, London, England. He died on 18
Sep 1790 in London, England. Duke of Cumberland Parents:
(Prince) FREDERICK LOUIS (Prince of Wales) and AUGUSTA
He was married to Anne LUTTRELL on 2 Oct 1771
in London, England.
HENRY I(1) King of Navarre
HENRY I (Beauclerc)(1) was born in
Sep 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire.(4) Henry
I (of England) (1068-1135), third Norman king of England (1100-1135), fourth
son of William the Conqueror. Henry was born in Selby. Because his father, who
died in 1087, left him no land, Henry made several unsuccessful attempts to gain
territories on the Continent. On the death of his brother William II in 1100,
Henry took advantage of the absence of another brother-Robert, who had a prior
claim to the throne-to seize the royal treasury and have himself crowned king
at Westminster. Henry subsequently secured his position with the nobles and with
the church by issuing a charter of liberties that acknowledged the feudal rights
of the nobles and the rights of the church. In 1101 Robert, who was duke of Normandy,
invaded England, but Henry persuaded him to withdraw by promising him a pension
and military aid on the Continent. In 1102 Henry put down a revolt of nobles,
who subsequently took refuge in Normandy, where they were aided by Robert. By
defeating Robert at Tinchebray, France, in 1106, Henry won Normandy. During the
rest of his reign, however, he constantly had to put down uprisings that threatened
his rule in Normandy. The conflict between Henry and Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury,
over the question of lay investiture (the appointment of church officials by
the king), was settled in 1107 by a compromise that left the king with substantial
control in the matter.
Because he had no surviving male heir, Henry was forced to designate his daughter
Matilda as his heiress. After his death on December 1, 1135, at Lyons-la-Fôret,
Normandy, however, Henry's nephew, Stephen of Blois, usurped the throne, plunging
the country into a protracted civil war that ended only with the accession of
Matilda's son, Henry II, in 1154.
He died in 1135. He died on 1 Dec 1135 in St. Denis-le-Fer, near Gisors.
He was buried in Reading Abbey. He has reference number 8XJ0-6V. Accession
to throne: 02 August 1100 Parents: (King) WILLIAM I
(The Conqueror Duke of Normandy) and Matilda De FLANDERS
He was married to (Princess) Matilda ATHELING (Princess
of Scotland) on 11 Nov 1100 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex,
England. Children were: (Duke) WILLIAM (Duke of Normandy)
, (Princess) MATILDA (MAUD).
He was married to
(Princess of Brabant) ADELICIA (Queen of England)
on 24 Jan 1120/21 in Windsor, Berkshire, England.
HENRY II (England)(1) was born on 25
Mar 1133 in Le Mans, Sartha, France.(4)
Henry II (of England) (1133-89), king of England (1154-89), first monarch of
the house of Anjou, or Plantagenet, an important administrative reformer, who
was one of the most powerful European rulers of his time.
Born March 5, 1133, at Le Mans, France, Henry became duke of Normandy in 1151.
The following year, on the death of his father, he inherited the Angevin territories
in France. By his marriage in 1152 to Eleanor of Aquitaine, Henry added vast
territories in southwestern France to his possessions. Henry claimed the English
kingship through his mother, Matilda. She had been designated the heiress of
Henry I but had been deprived of the succession by her cousin, Stephen of Blois,
who made himself king. In 1153 Henry defeated Stephen's armies in England and
compelled the king to choose him as his successor; on Stephen's death, the following
year, Henry became king. During the first few years of his reign Henry quelled
the disorders that had developed during Stephen's reign, regained the northern
counties of England, which had previously been ceded to Scotland, and conquered
North Wales. In 1171-72 he began the Norman conquest of Ireland and in 1174 forced
William the Lion, king of the Scots, to recognize him as overlord.
In 1164 Henry became involved in a quarrel with Thomas à Becket, whom he
had appointed archbishop of Canterbury. By the Constitutions of Clarendon, the
king decreed that priests accused of crimes should be tried in royal courts;
Becket claimed that such cases should be handled by ecclesiastical courts, and
the controversy that followed ended in 1170 with Becket's murder by four of Henry's
knights. Widespread indignation over the murder forced the king to rescind his
decree and recognize Becket as a martyr.
Although he failed to subject the church to his courts, Henry's judicial reforms
were of lasting significance. In England he established a centralized system
of justice accessible to all freemen and administered by judges who traveled
around the country at regular intervals. He also began the process of replacing
the old trial by ordeal with modern court procedures.
From the beginning of his reign, Henry was involved in conflict with Louis VII,
king of France, and later with Louis's successor, Philip II, over the French
provinces that Henry claimed. A succession of rebellions against Henry, headed
by his sons and furthered by Philip II and by Eleanor of Aquitaine, began in
1173 and continued until his death at Chinon, France, on July 6, 1189. Henry
was succeeded by his son Richard I, called Richard the Lion-Hearted.
He died on 6 Jul 1189 in Chinon. He was buried in Fontrevraud Abbey.
Accession to throne: 25 Oct 1154 Henry may not have been sired by his legal father,
Geoffrey of Anjou, the Plantagenet Count of Anjou. King of France Parents:
(King) GEOFFREY V and (Princess) MATILDA (MAUD)
He was married to (Queen) ELEANOR (Queen of France
& England) on 18 May 1152 in Bordeaux, England. Children were:
WILLIAM, (King) HENRY,
MATILDA, (King) RICHARD I (The Lion Hearted)
, GEOFFREY, (Queen) ELEANOR
(Queen of Castile), JOAN,
(King) JOHN I (Lackland).
He was married to Annabel
BALLIOL in not married. Children were: (Earl) (Earl
of Salisbury) William LONGESPEE (Magna Charta Surety).
He was married to
(Countess) ALIX (ALICE) (Countess of Vexin).
HENRY II was born about 1519 in Saint Germain-en-Laye. Henry II (of France)
(1519-59), king of France (1547-59), second son of King Francis I, born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
He married the Florentine noblewoman Catherine de Médicis in 1533, and when
his father died in 1547, Henry succeeded to the throne. During his reign he was
much influenced by his mistress, Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566), duchesse de Valentinois,
and by Duc Anne de Montmorency, constable of France (1493-1567). An ardent Roman
Catholic, Henry persecuted the Protestants (Huguenots) in the later years of
his reign. He continued the war waged by his father against Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, seizing from him the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun in 1552.
Engaging in war with England in 1557-58, Henry won back Calais and Guînes,
the last English possessions in France. From 1556 to 1559 he was involved in
a war with Charles V's son, Philip II of Spain, notable mainly for the Spanish
victory at Saint Quentin, Picardy (1557). Peace with Spain and England was restored
by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559), by which Henry agreed to give up France's
possessions in Italy. He was succeeded by his son, Francis II.
He died about 1559. Parents: (King) FRANCIS I (King
of France) and CLAUDE.
He was married to
Catherine De MADICIS about 1553. Children were:
(King) CHARLES IX (King of France), (King) HENRY
III (King of France).
HENRY III (King of Castile)(1) was
born about 1379. Henry III King of Castile & León was born in 1379.
Died in 1406. Reigned in 1390/1406. Henry III (of Castile and León) (1379-1406),
king of Castile and León (1390-1406), the son and successor of King John
I. Although at the beginning of his reign the country was plagued with continual
disorder and violent anti-Semitism, Henry was soon able to placate the nobility
and restore royal authority. He won victories over the English at sea, and the
conquest of the Canary Islands began under his sponsorship in 1402. He died
about 1406. King of Castile and Leon
HENRY III(1) was born on 1 Oct 1206
in Winchester, Hampshire, England.(4)
Henry III (of England) (1207-72), king of England (1216-72), son and successor
of King John (Lackland), and a member of the house of Anjou, or Plantagenet.
Henry ascended the throne at the age of nine, on the death of his father. During
his minority the kingdom was ruled by William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, as regent,
but after his death in 1219 the justiciar Hubert de Burgh was the chief power
in the government. During the regency the French, who occupied much of eastern
England, were expelled, and rebellious barons were subdued.
Henry was declared of age in 1227. In 1232 he dismissed Hubert de Burgh from
his court and commenced ruling without the aid of ministers. Henry displeased
the barons by filling government and church offices with foreign favorites, many
of them relatives of his wife, Eleanor of Provence, whom he married in 1236,
and by squandering money on Continental wars, especially in France. In order
to secure the throne of Sicily for one of his sons, Henry agreed to pay the pope
a large sum. When the king requested money from the barons to pay his debt, they
refused and in 1258 forced him to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, whereby
he agreed to share his power with a council of barons. Henry soon repudiated
his oath, however, with papal approval. After a brief period of war, the matter
was referred to the arbitration of Louis IX, king of France, who decided in Henry's
favor in a judgment called the Mise of Amiens (1264). Simon de Montfort, earl
of Leicester, accordingly led the barons into war, defeated Henry at Lewes, and
took him prisoner. In 1265, however, Henry's son and heir, Edward, later King
Edward I, led the royal troops to victory over the barons at Evesham, about 40.2
km (about 25 mi) south of Birmingham. Simon de Montfort was killed in the battle,
and the barons agreed to a compromise with Edward and his party in 1267. From
that time on Edward ruled England, and when Henry died, he succeeded him as king.
He died on 16 Nov 1272 in Palace of Westminster, Abbey, England. He was buried
on 20 Nov 1272 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England. He has
reference number 8XJ5-ZJ. Count of Bar Parents: (King)
JOHN I (Lackland) and (Queen) Isabella TAILLEFER
He was married to (Queen) ELEONORE (Countess
of Provence) on 14 Jan 1236 in Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. Children
were: (King) EDWARD I (King of England)(Longshanks)
, Margaret PLANTAGENET,
BEATRICE (Anjou), (Earl) EDMUND (Crounchback)(Earl
of Lancaster), RICHARD,
JOHN, CATHERINE, WILLIAM
HENRY III (King of France) was born about 1551. Henry III (of France) (1551-89),
king of France (1574-89), who, despite his considerable gifts, failed to resolve
the religious civil wars in his country and brought it close to bankruptcy.
The third son of Henry II and Catherine de Médicis, Henry, born at Fontainebleau
on September 19, 1551, was his mother's favorite son. Henry took part in the
victories over the Huguenots at Jarnac and at Moncontour in 1569. In 1572 he
aided his mother in planning the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day. He was
elected king of Poland in 1573, but after one year returned to France to ascend
the throne on the death of his brother, Charles IX. The wars between the Roman
Catholics and Protestants continued throughout Henry's reign, and he took advantage
of the strife to increase his power.
In 1576 Henry issued the Edict of Beaulieu, which accorded more privileges to
the Huguenots. Displeased with the edict, the Roman Catholics, under the leadership
of Henri I de Lorraine, duc de Guise, then formed the Holy League and renewed
the war with the Huguenots. The war ended in 1577 with the Peace of Bergerac.
The league was revived in 1584, however, when Henry's younger brother died, leaving
Henry of Navarre (a Huguenot, the future Henry IV of France) heir to the throne
of the childless king.
In the following year, when the king excluded Henry of Navarre from the succession
and repealed all the privileges granted to the Huguenots, Henry of Navarre began
the so-called War of the Three Henrys against the league and the king. After
the termination of the war in 1587 Henry III found his power rivaled by that
of Henri de Lorraine. In 1588, on the Day of Barricades, the citizenry of Paris,
under the leadership of Henri de Lorraine, revolted against the king, forcing
him to flee the city. The king subsequently had Henri de Lorraine and his brother
Louis de Lorraine (1555-88), assassinated and allied himself with Henry of Navarre,
whom he declared his successor. The two Henrys then became joint leaders of a
Huguenot army. While attempting to regain Paris on August 1, 1589, Henry III
was stabbed by Jacques Clément (1567?-89), a fanatical Dominican friar,
and died the next day.
He died about 1589. Parents: (King) HENRY II and
Catherine De MADICIS.
HENRY IV (King of France)(1) King
of France and Navarre
Children were: (Queen) HENRIETTA
HENRY IV (Bolingbroke)(1) was born
on 4 Apr 1366 in Bolingbroke Castle, England.(4)
Henry IV (of England) (1367-1413), king of England (1399-1413), the first
of the house of Lancaster.
Henry was born in Bolingbroke Castle in April 1367, the son of John of Gaunt,
duke of Lancaster. He was also known as Henry of Lancaster and Henry of Bolingbroke.
From 1387 to 1390 he was a leader of the party that opposed his cousin King Richard
II. Henry subsequently fought with the Teutonic Knights against the Lithuanians
and made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. After his return to England he allied himself
with the king. Because of a quarrel with Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of Norfolk,
in 1398, Henry was exiled for six years by Richard, who promised that Henry would
not lose his inheritance. When Henry's father died, however, Richard confiscated
the Lancastrian estates willed to Henry. Consequently, Henry raised an army,
invaded England, and captured Richard, who later abdicated.
In 1399 Henry was elected king by Parliament. The following year he suppressed
a revolt of nobles who supported Richard. The Scots and the Welsh, aided by the
French, then began a rebellion against the English crown. The Scots were defeated
(1402) at Humbleton Hill, but the Welsh continued the rebellion for seven years
under the leadership of the Welsh chief Owen Glendower. In 1403 the Percy family
rebelled against Henry because they were dissatisfied with the rewards for service
he had bestowed upon them; they were defeated in the Battle of Shrewsbury in
the same year. Wars and rebellions persisted after that date but diminished in
number. During his reign Henry IV persecuted the religious sect known as the
Lollards. He died in London on March 20, 1413, and was succeeded by his son,
He died on 20 Mar 1413 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England.
He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. King "Bolingbroke" Accession
to throne: 29 September 1399 Parents: (Duke) JOHN(GAUNT)
(Duke of Lancaster K.G.) and Blanche PLANTAGENET
He was married to Mary De BOHUN in 1380/81 in
Arundel Castle. Children were: BLANCHE,
(King) HENRY V, (Duke) THOMAS (Duke of Clarence)
, (Duke) JOHN (Duke of Bedford),
(Duke) HUMPHREY (Regent of England), PHILIPPA
He was married to JOAN on 7 Feb 1403 in Winchester
HENRY IV (King of Castile & Leon) was born about 1425. Henry IV King
of Castile & León was born in 1425. Died in 1474. Reigned in 1454/1474.
Henry IV (of Castile and León) (1425-74), king of Castile and León
(1454-74), the son and successor of King John II. He was a weak ruler, and much
of his reign was marred by conflict with the nobility over the designation of
a successor. His sister, the great Queen Isabella I, followed him on the throne.
He died about 1474. Parents: (King) JOHN II (King of
Castile) and (Queen) ISABELLA (Queen of Portugal)
HENRY V(1) died on 23 May 1125 in Utrecht.
Holy Roman Emperor
He was married to (Princess) MATILDA
(MAUD) on 7 Jan 1114 in Mainz.
HENRY V (Saxony)(The Lion)(1) Duke
of Saxony and Bavaria "the Lion"
He was married to
MATILDA on 1 Feb 1168 in Minden.
HENRY V(1) was born on 9 Aug 1387 in
Monmouth, England.(4) Henry V (of England)
(1387-1422), king of England (1413-22), known for his victorious campaigns against
France, born at Monmouth in August or September 1387. He was the son and successor
of Henry IV. In 1403 Henry led the royal army that defeated the rebellious Percy
family, led by Sir Henry Percy, at Shrewsbury. He also commanded the English
forces that put down the revolt of the Welsh chief Owen Glendower. In 1410-11,
when his father was incapacitated by illness, Henry headed the royal council,
but was removed after a political quarrel with his father. On succeeding to the
throne in 1413 Henry V restored Sir Henry Percy's son to his lands and titles;
he also honorably reburied at Westminster Abbey the remains of Richard II, who
had been deposed by Henry IV and had died in prison during the latter's reign.
The new king continued his father's policy in persecuting the religious sect
known as the Lollards and executed their leader, Sir John Oldcastle, in 1417.
In 1415 Henry warred against France, winning in that same year the Battle of
Agincourt. The following year he allied himself with the Holy Roman emperor Sigismund,
and in 1417 he began the conquest of Normandy, completing it with the capture
of Rouen two years later. He concluded a peace treaty with Charles VI of France
at Troyes in 1420, obtaining Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois, in marriage
and securing the promise of succession to the French throne on the death of Charles.
When Henry returned to England in 1421, leaving his brother Thomas, duke of Clarence,
as governor of Normandy, the French rose in opposition to English rule and defeated
the duke. Henry returned to France for a third campaign, but he became ill and
died. He was the most influential ruler in western Europe at the time of his
death in Vincennes, France, August 31, 1422. He was succeeded by his son Henry
He died on 31 Aug 1422 in Bois de Vincenne. He was buried in Westminster Abbey,
Westminster, Middlesex, England. King Accession to throne: 20 Mar 1413 Parents:
(King) HENRY IV (Bolingbroke) and
Mary De BOHUN.
He was married to CATHERINE
on 2 Jun 1420 in Troyes. Children were: (King) HENRY
HENRY VI(1) was born on 6 Dec 1421
in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. Henry VI King of England, Duke
of Cornwall was born on 6 Dec 1421 in Widsor, England. Died on 21 May 1471 in
Tower of London. Henry VI (of England) (1421-71), king of England (1422-61,
1470-71), the last of the house of Lancaster.
The son of King Henry V and Queen Catherine of Valois, Henry was born at Windsor
on December 6, 1421. He never showed any aptitude for government, and throughout
his reign the English court was dominated by competing aristocratic factions.
Like his father, he claimed the crown of France, but France gradually freed itself
from English control between 1430 and 1453. In 1445 Henry married a French princess,
Margaret of Anjou. During the 1450s a group of nobles sought to replace him with
Richard, duke of York, the next in line of succession to the throne. The resulting
civil conflict between the houses of Lancaster and York, known as the Wars of
the Roses (see Roses, Wars of the), began in 1455. After intermittent fighting
Henry was captured by the Yorkists at Northampton and was compelled to acknowledge
Richard rather than his own infant son as successor. In 1460 Richard was killed
by Henry's forces at Wakefield. Richard's son subsequently became leader of the
Yorkists and proclaimed himself king as Edward IV.
Henry and his queen escaped to Scotland, where they remained until 1464. In that
year he returned to take part in a rebellion against Edward but was captured
(1465) and imprisoned in the Tower of London. He had suffered attacks of insanity
all his life and was now completely incapacitated. Nevertheless, he became nominal
ruler again in 1470. Dethroned the following year and returned to the tower by
Edward, he died there on May 21, 1471, probably murdered on Edward's order.
Henry, who founded Eton College and King's College, University of Cambridge,
was venerated by many as a saint because of his piety.
He died on 21 May 1471 in Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England. He
was buried in Chertsey Abbey, later transferre.
King Accession to throne: 31 August 1422 Death note: murdered. Crowned as King
of France. Deposed 4 Mar 1461 Restored 3 Oct 1470: Deposed 11 April 1471 Parents:
(King) HENRY V and CATHERINE
He was married to Margaret ANJOU on 22 Apr 1445
in Titchfield Abbey, Hampshire. Children were: (Prince)
EDWARD (Prince of Wales).
HENRY VII(1) was born on 28 Jan 1457
in Pembroke Castle, Wales. Henry VII King of England was born on 28 Jan 1457
in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, England. Died on 21 Apr 1509 in Richmond,
Surrey. Reigned in 1485/1509. Henry VII (of England), often called Henry Tudor
(1457-1509), king of England (1485-1509) and first ruler of the house of Tudor,
whose reign initiated a period of national unity following the strife of the
Henry, the son of Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond (1430?-56), and Margaret Beaufort,
countess of Richmond and Derby (a direct descendant of John of Gaunt, duke of
Lancaster), was born on January 28, 1457, in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire.
After the Yorkist king Edward IV seized the throne from the Lancastrian Henry
VI in 1471, Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, took refuge in Brittany. He became head
of the house of Lancaster on the death of Henry VI in the same year. In 1483,
taking advantage of the indignation aroused against Edward's successor, Richard
III, whose nephews, Edward V and Richard, duke of York (1472-83), were murdered
in the Tower of London, presumably on Richard's order, Henry crossed over to
Wales, where he gathered an army of supporters. In 1485, at Bosworth Field in
England, he met and defeated Richard, who was killed during the battle. Henry
Tudor was subsequently crowned Henry VII in London. In the following year he
married the Yorkist heiress, Elizabeth (1465-1503), eldest daughter of Edward
IV, uniting the houses of York and Lancaster and ending the Wars of the Roses.
After his accession Henry had to contend with several Yorkist uprisings, notably
one led by the English impostor Lambert Simnel (circa 1471-1534), who claimed
to be Edward, earl of Warwick (1475-99), the last Yorkist claimant to the throne.
The real earl of Warwick was actually imprisoned by Henry in the Tower of London
at the time. Another revolt was led by the Walloon impostor Perkin Warbeck, who
claimed to be Richard, duke of York, the younger of the murdered sons of Edward
IV. Although both impostors had strong backing in England and abroad, their forces
were defeated by Henry. In 1494 Henry sent the English statesman Sir Edward Poynings
(1459-1521) to Ireland to reestablish English control in that country. Henry
managed to maintain peaceful relations with Austria, Spain, and France throughout
most of his years as king. The reorganization in 1487 of the Star Chamber was
one of several means by which Henry strengthened the royal power over the nobles.
He died in Richmond, Surrey, on April 21, 1509, and was succeeded by his second
son, Henry VIII.
He died on 21 Apr 1509 in Richmond Palace. He was buried in King Henry VII's,
Westminster Abbey. Accession to throne: 22 August 1485, Bosworth Field Parents:
(Earl) Edmund TUDOR and
He was married to (Queen) ELIZABETH
on 18 Jan 1486 in Westminster, England. Children were:
(Prince) ARTHUR (Prince of Wales), MARGARET,
(King) HENRY VIII, ELIZABETH
, MARY, EDMUND,
HENRY VIII(1) was born on 28 Jun 1491
in Greenwich Palace, England. Henry VIII King of England was born on 28 Jun
1491 in London, England. Died on 20 Jan 1547 in London, England. Reigned in
1509/1547. Henry VIII (1491-1547), king of England (1509-47), and founder of
the Church of England. The son of King Henry VII, he profoundly influenced the
character of the English monarchy.
Henry was born in London on June 28, 1491, and on the death of his father in
1509, succeeded to the throne. He then married his brother's widow Catherine
of Aragón, having been betrothed to her through a papal dispensation secured
in 1503. This union was the first of Henry's six marriages, which were affected
by the political and religious conditions of the time and by the monarch's increasingly
despotic behavior. At the beginning of his reign, Henry's good looks and hearty
personality, his fondness for sport and the hunt, and his military prowess endeared
him to his subjects. A monarch of the period known as the Renaissance, he entertained
numerous scholars and artists, including the German painter Hans Holbein the
Younger, who painted several famous portraits of the king and members of his
A Question of Divorce
In 1511 Henry joined in the Holy League against France, and in 1513 he led the
English forces through a victorious campaign in northern France. Deserted by
his allies, Henry arranged a marriage in 1514 between his sister Mary (1496-1533)
and Louis XII of France, with whom he formed an alliance. Louis's successor,
Francis I, met Henry at a magnificently staged meeting on the Field of the Cloth
of Gold in 1520, but no significant political decisions resulted from this meeting.
In 1525 riots broke out in England in protest against an attempt by Henry to
levy taxes for military purposes, and he withdrew from major military activity
In 1527 Henry announced his desire to divorce his wife, on the grounds that the
papal dispensation making the marriage possible was invalid. The chief reason
for the divorce was that Catherine had failed to produce a male heir. Her only
surviving child was Mary, later Mary I of England. In addition, Henry was in
love with Anne Boleyn, a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting of the queen. Several
obstacles, however, stood in the way of the divorce. Holy Roman Emperor Charles
V, Catherine's nephew, strongly opposed the divorce, and Pope Clement VII, whom
Charles had made a prisoner, could not invalidate the marriage without displeasing
his captor. In 1528 the pope was persuaded to appoint the English cardinal and
statesman Thomas Wolsey and Lorenzo Campeggio (1474-1539), a papal legate, to
try the case in an English legatine court. In 1529, the pope summoned the case
to Rome. When the prospect of securing a papal annulment seemed hopeless, Henry
dismissed Wolsey and appointed Sir Thomas More. The latter, however, was reluctant
to support the divorce.
The Break with the Papacy
Henry now proceeded to dissolve one by one the ties to the papacy. With the aid
of parliamentary legislation, he first secured control of the clergy, compelling
that group in 1532 to acknowledge him as head of the English church. In the following
year Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn, who was crowned queen after Henry's
obedient archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, declared the marriage with
Catherine void and that with Anne valid. An act of succession affirmed the declaration
of the archbishop and established Anne's progeny as heirs to the throne.
Although Henry was immediately excommunicated, he repudiated papal jurisdiction
in 1534 and made himself the supreme ecclesiastical authority in England. The
English people were required to affirm under oath Henry's supremacy and the act
of succession. Sir Thomas More and the English cardinal John Fisher were executed
for refusing to accept the religious supremacy of the English monarch. Henry
dissolved the monastic communities and gave much of their property to the nobles
in exchange for their support.
In 1536, after charging Anne Boleyn with incest and adultery, Henry had her executed.
A few days after Anne's death, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died in 1537 after
bearing Henry's only legitimate son, Edward, later Edward VI. A marriage was
arranged in 1540 with Anne of Cleves (1515-57) in order to form a tie between
England and the Protestant princes of Germany. Because Anne was unattractive
and because Henry found the political alliance no longer to his advantage, he
divorced her after several months and married Catherine Howard in the same year.
She was executed summarily in 1542 for having been unchaste prior to marriage
and having committed adultery. In the following year Henry married his sixth
wife, Catherine Parr, who survived him.
Between 1542 and 1546 Henry was involved in war with Scotland and France. His
troops defeated the Scots at Solway Moss in 1542. They captured Boulogne-sur-Mer
from the French in 1544, and when peace was made in 1546 Henry received an indemnity
from France. He died in London on January 28, 1547.
Effects of Henry's Reign
Although he altered the church, Henry did not wish to introduce Protestant doctrine.
Those who refused to accept Church of England teachings as well as those who
rejected Henry's authority over the church were executed. The licensing of an
English translation of the Bible, the issuance of Cranmer's litany, and the translation
into English of certain parts of the traditional service were the only important
religious changes made during Henry's reign. In terms of the monarchy, he intensified
the authoritarian elements characteristic of the Tudor dynasty to which he belonged.
The great strength of government developed by Henry was used powerfully in the
reign of Elizabeth I, his daughter by Anne Boleyn.
He died on 28 Jan 1547 in Whitehall, England. He was buried in St. George's
King Accession to throne: 21 April 1509. Divorced from first wife after 23 years,
11 months: 23 May 1533. Married second wife while still married to first wife.
Divorced from second wife after 2 years, 4 months: 17 May 1536. Beheaded second
wife 2 days after he divorced her. Third wife died 12 days after giving birth
to a son who survived. Divorced from fourth wife after 6 months: 9 July 1540.
Beheaded fifth wife 1 year, 7 months after marriage. Sixth wife survived him.
(King) HENRY VII and (Queen) ELIZABETH.
was married to (Princess) CATHERINE (Princess of Aragon)
on 24 Jun 1509 in Grey Friars Church, Greenwich, England. Children were:
(Duke) HENRY (Duke of Cornwall), (Queen) Mary I
He was married to Anne BOLEYN on 25
Jan 1533 in Whitehall or Wes. Children were: (Queen)
He was married to Jane SEYMOUR
on 30 May 1536 in York Place, London. Children were:
(King) EDWARD VI.
He was married to Catherine HOWARD
on 29 Jul 1540 in Hampton Court Palace, England.
He was married to
Catherine PARR on 12 Jul 1543 in Hampton Court Palace, England.
married to ANNE on 6 Jan 1540 in Greenwich, England.
HENRY WILLIAM FREDERICK (Duke of Gloscester)
(1) was born on 31 Mar 1900 in York Cottage, Sandringham, Norfolk,
England. He died on 10 Jun 1974 in Barnwell Manor, Northamptonshire, England.
Duke of Gloucester Parents: (King) GEORGE V (Duke of
York) and MARY.
(1) was born in 1900. He died in 1904.
Parents: (Prince) HENRY (Prince of Prussia) and
(Princess) IRENE (Princess of Hesse).
HENRY (Prince of Prussia)(1) was born
in 1862. He died in 1929.
Children were: WALDEMAR
HENRY (Duke of Cornwall)(1) was born
on 1 Jan 1511 in Richmond Palace. He died on 22 Feb 1511 in Richmond Palace.
He was born in Nov 1513 in Richmond Palace. He died in Nov 1513 in Richmond
Palace. Parents: (King) HENRY VIII and
(Princess) CATHERINE (Princess of Aragon).
HENRY (Duke of Gloucester)(1) was born
on 8 Jul 1640 in Oatlands, Surry. He died on 13 Sep 1660 in Whitehall Palace.
Duke of Gloucester Parents: (King) Charles I STUART
and (Queen) HENRIETTA MARIA.
HENRY(1) was born on 28 Feb 1155 in
Bermondsey Abbey, England. He died on 11 Jun 1183 in Martel.
"The Young King" Coronation date: 1170 Coronation place: Westminster
Abbey Crowned in his father's lifetime (a French custom) Coronated to ensure
a peaceful succession. Parents: (King) HENRY II (England)
and (Queen) ELEANOR (Queen of France & England)
He was married to MARGARET on 2 Nov 1160 in Neubourg.
(1) was born after 1256. died in infancy
(1) was christened on 13 Jul 1267 in Windsor.
He died on 14 Oct 1274 in Merton, Surrey. Parents:
(King) EDWARD I (King of England)(Longshanks) and
(Queen) ELEANOR (LEONOR) (Queen of England)(Castile).
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